All posts by Palethnologie

2016-11-GUILAINE

NEOLITHIC HOUSES:

Mediterranean Examples

Jean GUILAINE

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Abstract

In this article I present several different forms of Neolithic and Chalcolithic houses that are found within the Mediterranean basin. In Cyprus, the round form of house appears in the PPNA and has a long lifespan, lasting throughout the PPNB, from the Khirokitian to the Chalcolithic. In south-eastern Italy, subrectangular house plans found in the Early Neolithic sometimes make way for circular or oblong forms during the Chalcolithic such as at Trasano (Laterza culture). In the Midi region of France, houses constructed with stone infrastructures dating to the Final Neolithic-Chalcolithic allow archaeologists to reconstruct lifeways based on the spatial analysis of preserved floors.

In each of these culture areas we can see both continuities and discontinuities in architectural styles. On the other hand, the concept of “household” is harder to study because it requires the archaeologist to define and measure the occupancy of each domestic unit within the village, an element which remains highly speculative given the archaeological data available.

To cite this article

Guilaine J., 2016 – Neolithic Houses: Mediterranean Examples, in Chapdelaine C., Burke A., Gernigon K. (eds.), Household Archaeology – A Transatlantic Comparative Approach, Proceedings of the International Symposium, October 24-25 2014, Université de Montréal, P@lethnology, 8, 182-209.

2016-10-GERNIGON

VILLAGES BEFORE HOUSES?

The neolithization of Europe reconsidered through the concept of the household

Karim GERNIGON

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Abstract

Since the 19th century, the Neolithic period has been conceived as an inevitable stage of the history of human societies in Europe, taking place between the wild times of predation and the industrial civilization contemporaneous to the first prehistorians. The house is a central element of this model considered as proof of sedentarity, the end of nomadism and the beginning of social construction with the hearth drawing the household together. The lack of documentation relative to the architecture of several large geographical and chronological chunks of Neolithic Europe compromised, for a long time, any serious consideration of settlements in discussions about the way Neolithic societies were constituted, while the primacy accorded to Economy in the definition of the Neolithic led to a disregard of the settlement, seen as a sign of the accomplishment of the neolithization process.

The development of a sedentary way of life and the construction of perennial settlements are nevertheless the first signs of neolithization in the Middle-East and it is through structured village societies that this new way of life was disseminated to the Mediterranean shores. Taking into account settlements while discussing neolithization leads us to consider all dimensions of the process, and not only through the economic prism. It reveals that the neolithization process is not only the acquisition of farming and herding techniques, but also corresponds to the diffusion of an ideal village society, structured around exchange and a collective procurement of goods. Whether the first impacts of the Neolithic have been expressed by single emblematic tools, by domestic species, by ceramics and / or by long rectangular buildings, the neolithization process has only been fully accomplished when the model of the village society has been developed.

To cite this article

Gernigon K., 2016 – Villages before houses? The neolithization of Europe reconsidered through the concept of the household, in Chapdelaine C., Burke A., Gernigon K. (eds.), Household Archaeology – A Transatlantic Comparative Approach, Proceedings of the International Symposium, October 24-25 2014, Université de Montréal, P@lethnology, 8, 147-181.

2016-09-HALPERIN-FOIAS

HOUSEHOLD GARBAGE:

Classic period (ca. 300-900 CE) Maya Practices of Discard

Christina T. HALPERIN, Antonia FOIAS

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Abstract

What can the practices of discard tell us about Classic period Maya households? Most archaeological analyses of middens are concerned with an analysis of content: describing, classifying, and comparing midden contents to tell us about the people who left such remains. Yet much can be learned about households from studying the actual practices of getting rid of trash. This paper documents midden patterns from the Classic period Maya site of Motul de San José, Petén, Guatemala, and compares them with those found elsewhere in the Maya area. We reveal the ways in which trash deposition was integral to (1) defining household space, (2) marking the lifecycles of households, (3) the differential experience of social status, and (4) the possible expression of regional dispositions.

To cite this article

Halperin C.T., Foias A., 2016 – Household Garbage: Classic period (ca. 300-900 CE) Maya Practices of Discard, in Chapdelaine C., Burke A., Gernigon K. (eds.), Household Archaeology – A Transatlantic Comparative Approach, Proceedings of the International Symposium, October 24-25 2014, Université de Montréal, P@lethnology, 8, 126-145.

2016-08-ST-GERMAIN-COURTEMANCHE

THE FAUNA EXPLOITED BY THE HOUSEHOLDS
AT THE MAILHOT-CURRAN SITE (BGFN-2)

Claire ST-GERMAIN, Michelle COURTEMANCHE

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Abstract

The Mailhot-Curran site yielded a total of 27364 vertebrate skeletal remains. Some forty species were identified among these remains. The Iroquoian villagers concentrated their diet on fish, but also counted on mammals, birds and reptiles to complement their subsistence which relied primarily on agricultural production. The analysis of the horizontal spatial distribution of skeletal remains between various sectors of the site comprised by six longhouses and three middens sheds light on the relative homogeneity of faunal resources distribution within this community.

To cite this article

St-Germain C., Courtemanche M., 2016 – The Fauna Exploited by the Households at the Mailhot-Curran site (BgFn-2), in Chapdelaine C., Burke A., Gernigon K. (eds.), Household Archaeology – A Transatlantic Comparative Approach, Proceedings of the International Symposium, October 24-25 2014, Université de Montréal, P@lethnology, 8, 110-125.

2016-07-GATES-ETAL

Using Worked Bones to Study Iroquoian Households:

The Case of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians from Saint-Anicet, Quebec

Christian GATES ST-PIERRE, Marie-Ève BOISVERT, Maude CHAPDELAINE

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Abstract

Bone tools are abundant on Iroquoian sites and are generally analyzed using a typo-functional perspective. This article will serve as a demonstration of a demonstration of the utility of bone tools to study the household and social organization of St. Lawrence Iroquoians through intra- and inter-household spatial analyses.

To cite this article

Gates St-Pierre C., Boisvert M.-È., Chapdelaine M., 2016 – Using Worked Bones to Study Iroquoian Households: The Case of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians from Saint-Anicet, Quebec, in Chapdelaine C., Burke A., Gernigon K. (eds.), Household Archaeology – A Transatlantic Comparative Approach, Proceedings of the International Symposium, October 24-25 2014, Université de Montréal, P@lethnology, 8, 95-109.

2016-06-CHAPDELAINE

FOR A SOCIAL ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE DROULERS/TSIIONHIAKWATHA
AND MAILHOT-CURRAN SITES

Claude CHAPDELAINE

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Abstract

St. Lawrence Iroquoian social archaeology is at the center of our investigation and households will be discussed in this paper using domestic pottery and spatial analysis of cultural remains from two village sites of the Saint-Anicet area. The villages of Droulers and Mailhot-Curran will be used for this study. Droulers is a late 15th century village, which is actually the biggest known Iroquoian village in Québec with an estimated size of 1.3 ha. This settlement was probably occupied by at least 500 souls distributed over a dozen multifamily dwellings. Mailhot-Curran is a smaller 16th century village with six longhouses distributed over 0.6 ha with an estimated population of 200 persons. Selected households allow us to study social relations between its members and their clan affiliation.

To cite this article

Auteur, 2016 – For a Social Archaeology at the Droulers/Tsiionhiakwatha and Mailhot-Curran Sites, in Chapdelaine C., Burke A., Gernigon K. (eds.), Household Archaeology – A Transatlantic Comparative Approach, Proceedings of the International Symposium, October 24-25 2014, Université de Montréal, P@lethnology, 8, 78-94.

2016-05-PLOURDE

THE HOUSEHOLD AMONG IROQUOIAN SEAL HUNTERS
OF THE PROVINCE OF CANADA DURING THE LATE WOODLAND PERIOD (1000-1535 CE)

Michel PLOURDE

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Abstract

During the Late Woodland Period (AD 1000-1600), St. Lawrence Iroquoians developed a seasonal transhumance between the present day Quebec City area (“province de Canada”) and the mouth of the Saguenay River, located on the margin of the St. Lawrence estuary, to hunt seals. The archaeological data highlights two types of settlements: a first type used in spring by small groups of male hunters targeting harp seals, and a second type occupied in summertime by nuclear families, when gray and common seals feed in the area. On the one hand, we find differences between the dimensions and types of spring and summer camps. On the other hand, we note that the shape of houses revealed by archaeological excavations in the Tadoussac area differ from those found in the semi-permanent settlements located in the Quebec City area and thus reflect short-term occupations related to intense seal hunting periods.

To cite this article

Plourde M., 2016 – The Household among Iroquoian Seal Hunters of the Province of Canada during the Late Woodland Period (1000-1535 CE), in Chapdelaine C., Burke A., Gernigon K. (eds.), Household Archaeology – A Transatlantic Comparative Approach, Proceedings of the International Symposium, October 24-25 2014, Université de Montréal, P@lethnology, 8, 62-77.

2016-04-RIETH

LATE PREHISTORIC HOUSEHOLD ARCHAEOLOGY
IN EASTERN NEW YORK

Christina B. RIETH

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Abstract

Archaeological studies of households provide us with information about the interactions between past populations, the ways that they organized their settlements and the relationship of disparate segments of a community to each other. By examining the effects of households at several different scales, archaeologists can better understand the processes that underlie human behavior. This paper examines the Late Prehistoric Getman site in New York and the role of Iroquoian households as represented in the compartment, longhouse, and village contexts. Conclusions about equality, resource use, and the spatial organization of the longhouse are suggested.

To cite this article

Rieth C.B., 2016 – Late Prehistoric Household Archaeology in Eastern New York, in Chapdelaine C., Burke A., Gernigon K. (eds.), Household Archaeology – A Transatlantic Comparative Approach, Proceedings of the International Symposium, October 24-25 2014, Université de Montréal, P@lethnology, 8, 49-61.

2016-03-BIRCH

RELATIONS OF POWER AND PRODUCTION
IN ANCESTRAL WENDAT COMMUNITIES

Jennifer BIRCH

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Abstract

During the late 15th and early 16th centuries AD, the Iroquoian societies of northeastern North America experienced widespread conflict and the coalescence of small village-communities into densely populated settlements. Regionally, these processes resulted in realignment of the geopolitical landscape and the emergence of distinct nations. To assess how coalescence unfolded at the household level, insights from one well-studied ancestral Wendat community relocation sequence will be presented. These data are interrogated within a multi-scalar analytical and theoretical framework which places the community at the center of processes of cultural change. The reconfiguration of domestic space, palisades, middens, and activity areas, together with their associated material culture suggest that coalescence resulted in the development of a significant degree of organizational complexity. This included the development of asymmetrical power relations and centralized decision-making, together with changes in the social means of production, increased demands on male and female labor, centralized management of household activities, and changes in social learning. The fine temporal resolution of these data demonstrate how these processes affected each generation as individuals and households responded to the challenges and opportunities of life in large co-residential village communities.

To cite this article

Birch J., 2016 – Relations of Power and Production in Ancestral Wendat Communities, in Chapdelaine C., Burke A., Gernigon K. (eds.), Household Archaeology – A Transatlantic Comparative Approach, Proceedings of the International Symposium, October 24-25 2014, Université de Montréal, P@lethnology, 8, 31-48.

2016-02-CREESE

EXTENDING THE RAFTERS:

The Iroquoian Longhouse as a Sociotechnical System

John L. CREESE

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Abstract

A better understanding of the role of domestic dwellings in shaping past social relations is needed. Here, Northern Iroquoian longhouses are studied as sociotechnical systems, following Pfaffenberger (1992). This approach allows us to appreciate how social relations were generated and contested in the very activities of building and living in houses. I examine a sample of pre-Columbian longhouses from southern Ontario, Canada. Variation in aspects of house construction, spatial layout, and ritual indicates that sociotechnical networks associated with different houses were variable in scale, durability, and organization. What emerges is the sense that a dynamic, driving tension between forces of collectivization and atomization, inclusion and exclusion, lay at the heart of longhouse life.

To cite this article

Creese J.L., 2016 – Extending the Rafters: The Iroquoian Longhouse as a Sociotechnical System, in Chapdelaine C., Burke A., Gernigon K. (eds.), Household Archaeology – A Transatlantic Comparative Approach, Proceedings of the International Symposium, October 24-25 2014, Université de Montréal, P@lethnology, 8, 11-30.