In this article I present several different forms of Neolithic and Chalcolithic houses that are found within the Mediterranean basin. In Cyprus, the round form of house appears in the PPNA and has a long lifespan, lasting throughout the PPNB, from the Khirokitian to the Chalcolithic. In south-eastern Italy, subrectangular house plans found in the Early Neolithic sometimes make way for circular or oblong forms during the Chalcolithic such as at Trasano (Laterza culture). In the Midi region of France, houses constructed with stone infrastructures dating to the Final Neolithic-Chalcolithic allow archaeologists to reconstruct lifeways based on the spatial analysis of preserved floors.
In each of these culture areas we can see both continuities and discontinuities in architectural styles. On the other hand, the concept of “household” is harder to study because it requires the archaeologist to define and measure the occupancy of each domestic unit within the village, an element which remains highly speculative given the archaeological data available.